How to generate a booklet from a PDF file

Using ConTeXt (taken from the imposition explanation):

\definepapersize	[filius][width=136mm, height=232mm]
\setuppapersize		[filius][A4,landscape]
\setuparranging		[2UP,doublesided]
\setuplayout [backspace=0pt,
      grid=no, marking=off]

You have to replace the document.pdf with the real file name and filius with the original paper size.

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Searching for text in directories

To find which pure text files contains a given text from the command line, this is the proper command:

grep -ilr "pattern" directory

The -i option makes the search case-insensitive, -r searches the pattern recursively (that is, in the subdirectories that the actual directory might contain), and -l shows the file list where the pattern occurs.

Thanks to Juan Luis Belmonte for the tip (credit where credit is due).

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Backing up all user data in Linux

One of the most I like most in Linux is the strong separation among user data and system data. This makes installing new versions, or moving data from different hard disks (and other sensitive operations that require all your data).

To copy all user data you need to type:

tar -cvpf compressed-file.tar /home/

This creates (-c) a file (-f) named compressed-file.tar retaining file and folder permissions and storing there all data from the /home/ directory.

To extract this you would only need to type:

tar -xf compressed-file.tar

The -x option specifies the extraction from -f (file).

To restore the data, the operation should be done at the root directory (since files will be extracted with full-path directories).

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Connecting two computers using a twisted pair cable (or a switch)

Sometimes being able to connect two computers using a twisted pair cable or a switch is extremely useful for copying data.

Once we have plugged the cable in both computers (or we have plugged both cables in the switch), we must assign a new IP address to both machines:

ifconfig eth0 netmask
ifconfig eth0 netmask

To check whether both computers communicate, we must ping each computer from the other one:


It is important to ping always the other machine, because pinging the same address (i.e., from always works.

If no packet has been lost, computers communicate because both can send a receive packets. But to move files, one must select a proper protocol.

For security reasons, during this connection no computer should be physically connected to the net.

When everything is done, we get the default internet connection configuration again by restarting the system or by running as administrator:

/etc/init.d/network restart
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Copying your MBR

To check whether an issue with my laptop’s in-line recording is a hardware problem or a buggy audio driver, the guy from Dell’s technical support asked me to install Windows to discard a software failure. I have been asked to do that after having the mainboard replaced (laptops have no separated sound cards). I have to decrease the size of one of my partitions, create a new one and format it as FAT32.

But the issue here is that Windows will rewrite the master boot record (to promote competition ;-)) when installing it.

I have asked how to restore the original MBR at Mandriva Expert and thanks to the replies, I have a method to copy and restore the MBR.

As administrator, run the following command:

dd if=/dev/sda of=mbrsave bs=512 count=1

To have it back, run as administrator again:

dd if=/path/to/mbrsave of=/dev/sda

Many thanks, George and Jean-Pierre, for the tip.

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On presentation technologies (what Lessig might need)

Reading Lawrence Lessig’s Experiments in presentation technology, I became extremely interested on his efforts when I read:

My hope is to put every presentation I’ve made, with audio and the source files, up for anyone to do with as they wish. That turns out to be harder than it should be. Any advice or help would be greatly appreciated.

It sounds promising, but there is an issue that makes the task harder than it seems:

The only difficult part about this was listening to myself again (and again) as I built this.

If I don’t understand the issue here wrong, the problem is the timeline to sync audio and each slide. It is difficult to guess how long each slide should take. And if you have many slides, this task will be tedious. And a solution for this would be that the computer counts for you.

Computers are mainly counting machines. It should not be difficult to implement a multiplatform program (using wxWidgets or something similar) that is able to detect keystrokes defined by the user to start the timeline, detect each new slide transition and finish the timeline and that is also able to export this timeline into a text file.

An example of this would be a (Keynote/PowerPoint/Impress/PDF) presentation not using the fullscreen mode to see what comes next (or in a mode that enables you to see previous and next slides). You start recording the audio and start the timeline. Each slide transition is detected by the program, so the syncing will be perfect. You finish the timeline and stop recording. The ouput file would be:


(Of course, the program could have another features, but this is only a basic sketch.)

If I’m not wrong, Lawrence Lessig could even generate the timeline when giving the presentation. This would be the first step to generate the presentation with audio in a PDF file (as suggested here).

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On presentation technologies (PDF)

After reading Lessig’s Experiments in presentation technology, I have been searching for a proper way of syncing audio and slides. As far as I know (and I’m not a programer, only a user), vectors are smaller and better for being zoomed than bitmaps. Formats that allow vectors and multimedia are PDF and Flash.

I think PDF is the right answer (my experiences with Flash will be described on a following post). It is both possible to determine the duration of an automatic page display and it is possible to embed audio and video files on PDF files. Both issues are described on the PDF Reference Version 1.6. The /Dur entry to the page object is described on page 121 (and it is rather tricky, since Acrobat/Adobe Reader only advances automatically to next page when the /PageMode /FullScreen is set on the catalog dictionary [although this might not be mandadory]). “Multimedia” is described on section 9.1 of the PDF Reference and I guess that section 9.2 (“Sounds”) is not applicable to mp3/ogg files. (Sorry, but it is too technical for me.)

The question is then which tools can modify already existing PDF documents to set the duration display duration of each page and to add the background mp3/ogg audio file to the complete presentation. Apart from Adobe’s tools themselves, I’m afraid that no tool released under an open source license is able to achive this right now, but I guess there is one that could be easily implemented to do the job.

pdftk is a tool to manipulate PDF documents and it is released under the GNU GPL. It is a command line tool and it runs under Windows, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, FreeBSD and Solaris. It could be implemented in the following way:

  • Adding an option pagedisplay times.txt, having times.txt the following content:


    Time intervals could also be introduced only in seconds or in hours:minutes:seconds.

  • Switching /PageMode to /FullScreen in the catalog dictionary (it is required for the automatic display to work).

  • Adding an option audiosync audio.mp3 n, where n stands for the page number where the audio file should be inserted. Probably it would be a good idea to allow to insert different audio files in different pages.

If you feel more confortable with Python, I guess pyPDF could be developed to be able do the task, but this tool is in earlier stages of development and probably more labour would be required. Since pyPDF is actually a library and it requires an interpreter to run, it is harder to be deployed by end-users.

On the display side, Adobe Reader 7 is able to deal with both features, but multimedia playing doesn’t work in UNIX. And what about non-Adobe PDF viewers? poppler handles neither the page object entry /Dur (see issue) nor embedded multimedia (see issue) yet.

And eventually the question is: any takers?